Contents
**C H A P T E
R 1**
**
PHYSICAL WORLD**
1.1 What is physics ? 1
1.2 Scope and excitement of physics 2
1.3 Physics, technology and society 5
1.4 Fundamental forces in nature 6
1.5 Nature of physical laws 10
**C H A P T E
R 2**
**
UNITS AND MEASUREMENTS**
2.1 Introduction 16
2.2 The international system of units 16
2.3 Measurement of length 18
2.4 Measurement of mass 21
2.5 Measurement of time 22
2.6 Accuracy, precision of instruments and errors in measurement 22
2.7 Significant figures 27
2.8 Dimensions of physical quantities 31
2.9 Dimensional formulae and dimensional equations 31
2.10 Dimensional analysis and its applications 32
**C H A P T E
R 3**
**
MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE**
3.1 Introduction 39
3.2 Position, path length and displacement 39
3.3 Average velocity and average speed 42
3.4 Instantaneous velocity and speed 43
3.5 Acceleration 45
3.6 Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion 47
3.7 Relative velocity 51
**C H A P T E
R 4**
**
MOTION IN A PLANE**
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2 Scalars and vectors 65
4.3 Multiplication of vectors by real numbers 67
4.4 Addition and subtraction of vectors – graphical method 67
4.5 Resolution of vectors 69
4.6 Vector addition –
analytical method 71
4.7 Motion in a plane 72
4.8 Motion in a plane with constant acceleration 75
4.9 Relative velocity in two dimensions 76
4.10 Projectile motion 77
4.11 Uniform circular motion 79
**C H A P T E
R 5**
**
LAWS OF MOTION**
5.1 Introduction 89
5.2 Aristotle’s fallacy 90
5.3 The law of inertia 90
5.4 Newton’s first law of motion 91
5.5 Newton’s second law of motion 93
5.6 Newton’s third law of motion 96
5.7 Conservation of momentum 98
5.8 Equilibrium of a particle 99
5.9 Common forces in mechanics 100
5.10 Circular motion 104
5.11 Solving problems in mechanics 105
**C H A P T E
R 6**
**
WORK, ENERGY AND POWER**
6.1 Introduction 114
6.2 Notions of work and kinetic energy : The work-energy theorem 116
6.3 Work 116
6.4 Kinetic energy 117
6.5 Work done by a variable force 118
6.6 The work-energy theorem for a variable force 119
6.7 The concept of potential energy 120
6.8 The conservation of mechanical energy 121
6.9 The potential energy of a spring 123
6.10 Various forms of energy : the law of conservation of energy 126
6.11 Power 128
6.12 Collisions 129
**C H A P T E
R 7**
**
SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION**
7.1 Introduction 141
7.2 Centre of mass 144
7.3 Motion of centre of mass 148
7.4 Linear momentum of a system of particles 149
7.5 Vector product of two vectors 150
7.6 Angular velocity and its relation with linear velocity 152
7.7 Torque and angular momentum 154
7.8 Equilibrium of a rigid body 158
7.9 Moment of inertia 163
7.10 Theorems of perpendicular and parallel axes 164
7.11 Kinematics of rotational
motion about a fixed axis 167
7.12 Dynamics of rotational motion about a fixed axis 169
7.13 Angular momentum in case of rotations about a fixed axis 171
7.14 Rolling motion 173
**C H A P T E
R 8**
**
GRAVITATION**
8.1 Introduction 183
8.2 Kepler’s laws 184
8.3 Universal law of gravitation 185
8.4 The gravitational constant 189
8.5 Acceleration due to gravity of the earth 189
8.6 Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of earth 190
8.7 Gravitational potential energy 191
8.8 Escape speed 193
8.9 Earth satellite 194
8.10 Energy of an orbiting satellite 195
8.11 Geostationary and polar satellites 196
8.12 Weightlessness 197
APPENDICES 203
ANSWERS 219 |