Biochemistry / Biomolecules Notes

Basic Biochemistry -

1) Structure of atoms, Atoms and molecules, molecules and chemical bonds, Molecules and weak bonds, principle of physical chemistry, Non covalent Interaction,

2) Thermodynamics, kinetics, dissociation and association constants

3) Acids, Bases and Buffers, Principle of Ionization of Weak Acids, Titration of a Weak Acid illustrating its Ionization and Buffering Property, Ionization of Simple Amino Acids, Ionization Rules 1, Ionization of Complex Amino Acids, Ionization of His, Calculating pI (Isoelectric Point or pH) of His, Ionization Rules 2

Water - water1, water and organic molecules, Important properties, the low of mass action, Kw

            dissociation of water and its ion product,

Carbohydrate - Introduction, Carbohydrates classification, properties, function,

1) Monosaccharides: nomenclature, stereochemistry, & cyclic forms

aldolase, glucose, fructose, galactose

Disaccharide: Glycosidic bonds

2) Oligosaccharides of glycoproteins & glycolipids Oligosaccharides

sucrose, maltose

3) Polysaccharides - amylose, amylopectin & cellulose



Glucose monomer - starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin

Galactose monomer - agar, pectin



Glycosaminoglycans & proteoglycans, glycolipids, Sugar derivatives, Lectins, Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans

Protein - properties (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary) Proteins Functions, Classification, Structure,

             Protein Architecture-I, Architectrure-II, Stability And Unfolding, Physicochemical Properties, Protein Hormones,

             The Influence Of Environment On Protein Conformation, Correlations b/w Amino Acid Seq. & Conformation

             Intermolecular Interactions In Proteins,

1) Amino acids shape & structure of amino acids, structure, functional, properties, Peptide bond, b-sheet

Amino Acid Sequencing Methods, Characterization of Proteins

1) Aliphatic - alanine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, valine

2) Nonpolar R group- methionine, phenylalanine, proline, tryptophan

3) Positively Charged- arginine, histidine, lysine

4) Negatively Charged- aspartate, glutamate

5) Polar- asparagine, cysteine, glutamine, serine, threonine, tyrosine

2) Structural Biophysics of Protein Principles of Protein Structure, Primary Structure, Protein Secondary Structure, Protein Tertiary Structure, Protein Folding and Evolution, Evolution of Protein Structures, Part I. Homologous Proteins, Evolution of Proteins/Enzymes with Complex Functionality, Enzymes with the Same 3-D Shape but Different Functions, Summary

Membrane Protein Structure, Secondary structure and motif, Motif and Domains, Globular protein & Protein aggregates, Evolution of protein & Protein engineering, Primary Structure, Secondary Motifs, Tertiary Architecture And Quaternary Organization,

3) Enzymes Enzyme Biochemistry Introduction, function, reaction and enzymes, Nomenclature And Mechanism Of Enzyme Catalysis, Enzyme Kinetics, Enzymes as Nano-Engines, Enzyme Kinetics Hemoglobin, Allosteric Enzymes and Regulation of Enzyme Activity, Factor That Influence Enzyme Activity, Enzyme Catalysis, Enzyme Catalysis, Mechanisms, Enzyme Catalysis Examples1, Examples2, The Specificity Of Enzymes,

Enzyme Inhibition, Noncompetitive Inhibition,

Enzyme Regulation, Allosteric Regulation, Hemoglobin - Positive Cooperative, Feedback Regulation and Covalent Modification, Summary

4) Protein Engineering Mutagenesis & Enzyme Catalysis via Transition State, Transition-State Theory of Enzyme Catalysis, Transition-State Analogs as Very Good Enzyme Inhibitors, Transition-State in Enzymes & Biotechnology, Site-Directed Mutagenesis of an Enzyme, Transition-State Intermediate Binding in an Enzymes

Isolation techniques and purification of proteins and amino acids, Protein Purification I,  II,  Summary

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, Protein Architecture

Lipids - Types, classification, nomenclature, properties, function, lipids and membranes, Biological Membranes

 Fats = Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

1) Simple lipids, lipid 2, Oils, Waxes

2) Compound Lipids, Phospholopids, Sphingolipids, Glycolipids, Lipoproteins, Lecithin, Cephalin, Plasmalogen, Lipositol, Sphingomyelin,

            Terpenoids and Steroids, Terpenes, Sterols, Androgens and estrogens, Adrenal corticolsteroids,

            Application Of Phospholipids In Biology, Steroid And Steroid Hormones

Basic Techniques

3D structure membrane proteins