Bioinformatics Time Line

1951

Pauling and Corey propose the structure for the alpha-helix and beta-sheet

1953

Watson & Crick propose the double helix model for DNA based x-ray data obtained by Franklin & Wilkins

1954

Perutz's group develop heavy atom methods to solve the phase problem in protein crystallography

1955

The sequence of the first protein to be analysed, bovine insulin, is announed by FSanger

1958

The first integrated circuit is constructed by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments

 

The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is formed in the US 

1962

Pauling's theory of molecular evolution 

1965

Margaret Dayhoff's Atlas of Protein Sequences 

1968

Packet-switching network protocols are presented to ARPA 

1969

The ARPANET is created by linking computers at Stanford, UCSB, The University of Utah and UCLA 

1970

The details of the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm for sequence comparison are published 

1971

Ray Tomlinson (BBN) invents the email program 

1972

The first recombinant DNA molecule is created by Paul Berg and his group 

1973

The Brookhaven Protein DataBank is announeced (ActaCrystB,1973,29:1764) Robert Metcalfe receives his PhD from Harvard University His thesis describes Ethernet 

1974

Vint Cerf and Robert Khan develop the concept of connecting networks of computers into an "internet" and develop the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

1975

Microsoft Corporation is founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen 

 

Two-dimensional electrophoresis, where separation of proteins on SDS polyacrylamide gel is combined with separation according to isoelectric points, is announced by P H O'Farrell

1976

The Unix-To-Unix Copy Protocol (UUCP) is developed at Bell Labs

 

E M Southern published the experimental details for the Southern Blot technique of specific sequences of DNA

1977

The full description of the Brookhaven PDB (http://wwwpdbbnlgov) is published

1978

The first Usenet connection is established between Duke and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis and Steve Bellovin 

1979

The first Usenet connection is established between Duke and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis and Steve Bellovin 

1980

The first complete gene sequence for an organism (FX174) is published The gene consists of 5,386 base pairs which code nine proteins

 

WŁthrich et al publish paper detailing the use of multi-dimensional NMR for protein structure determination

1981

The Smith-Waterman algorithm for sequence alignment is published

 

IBM introduces its Personal Computer to the market 

 

The concept of a sequence motif ( Doolittle ) 

1982

Genetics Computer Group (GCG) created as a part of the University of Wisconsin of Wisconsin Biotechnology Center The company's primary product is The Wisconsin Suite of molecular biology tools 

 

GenBank Release 3 made public 

1983

The Compact Disk (CD) is launched Name servers are developed at the University of Wisconsin 

 

Sequence database searching algorithm ( Wilbur-Lipman ) 

 

LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory) and LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) begin production of DNA clone (cosmid) libraries representing single chromosomes

 

DNA analysis becomes viable with the discovery of Polymerase Chain Reaction It allows small samples of DNA to be multiplied to produce a large enough sample to analyse 

1984

Jon Postel's Domain Name System (DNS) is placed on-line

 

The Macintosh is announced by Apple Computer 

1985

The FASTP/FASTN algorithm is published

 

Robert Sinsheimer holds meeting on human genome sequencing at University of California, Santa Cruz

 

At OHER, Charles DeLisi and David A Smith commission the first Santa Fe conference to assess the feasibility of a Human Genome Initiative 

1986

Following the Santa Fe conference, DOE OHER announces Human Genome Initiative With $53 million, pilot projects begin at DOE national laboratories to develop critical resources and technologies

 

The term "Genomics" appeared for the first time to describe the scientific discipline of mapping, sequencing, and analyzing genes The term was coined by Thomas Roderick as a name for the new journal

 

Amoco Technology Corporation acquires IntelliGenetics 

 

The SWISS-PROT database is created by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)

 

The PCR reaction is described by Kary Mullis and co-workers 

1987

The use of yeast artifical chromosomes (YAC) is described

 

The physical map of e coli is published 

 

Perl (Practical Extraction Report Language) is released by Larry Wall

 

Congressionally chartered DOE advisory committee, HERAC, recommends a 15-year, multidisciplinary, scientific, and technological undertaking to map and sequence the human genome DOE designates multidisciplinary human genome centers

 

NIH NIGMS begins funding of genome projects 

1988

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) created at NIH/NLM

 

EMBnet network for database distribution

 

The Human Genome Intiative is started (commission on Life Sciences, National Research council Mapping and sequencing the Human Genome, National Academy Press: washington, DC)

 

The FASTA algorith for sequence comparison is published by Pearson and Lupman

 

A new program, an Internet computer virus desined by a student, infects 6,000 military computers in the US

 

Reports by congressional OTA and NAS NRC committees recommend concerted genome research program

 

HUGO founded by scientists to coordinate efforts internationally

 

First annual Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory meeting on human genome mapping and sequencing

 

DOE and NIH sign MOU outlining plans for cooperation on genome research

 

Telomere (chromosome end) sequence having implications for aging and cancer research is identified at LANL 

1989

The genetics Computer Group (GCG) becomes a privatae company 

 

Oxford Molceular Group,Ltd(OMG) founded, UK by Anthony Marchigton, David Ricketts, James Hiddleston, Anthony Rees, and WGraham Richards Primary products: Anaconds, Asp, Cameleon and others (molecular modeling, drug design, protein design)

 

DNA STSs recommended to correlate diverse types of DNA clones

 

DOE and NIH establish Joint ELSI Working Group 

1990

The BLAST program (Altschul,etal) is implemented

 

Molecular applications group is founded in California by Michael Levitt and Chris Lee Their primary products are Look and SegMod which are used for molecular modeling and protein deisign

 

InforMax is founded in Bethesda, MD The company's products address sequence analysis, database and data management, searching, publication graphics, clone construction, mapping and primer design

 

DOE and NIH present joint 5-year US HGP plan to Congress The 15-year project formally begins

 

Projects begun to mark gene sites on chromosome maps as sites of mRNA expression

 

Research and development begun for efficient production of more stable, large-insert BACs 

1991

The research institute in Geneva (CERN) announces the creation of the protocols which make -up the World Wide Web

 

The creation and use of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is described

 

Incyte Pharmaceuticals, a genomics company headquartered in Palo Alto California, is formed

 

Myriad Genetics, Inc is founded in Utah The company's goal is to lead in the discovery of major common human disease genes and their related pathways The company has discovered and sequenced, with its academic collaborators, the following major genes: BRCA1, BRACA1 , CHD1, MMAC1, MMSC1, MMSC2, CtIP, p16, p19 and MTS2 

1992

Low-resolution genetic linkage map of entire human genome published

 

Guidelines for data release and resource sharing announced by DOE and NIH 

1993

Sanger Centre , Hinxton, UK

 

CuraGen Corporation is formed in New Haven, CT

 

Affymetrix begins independent operations in Santa Clara, California

 

International IMAGE Consortium established to coordinate efficient mapping and sequencing of gene-representing cDNAs

 

DOE-NIH ELSI Working Group's Task Force on Genetic and Insurance Information releases recommendations

 

DOE and NIH revise 5-year goals

 

IOM releases US HGP-funded report, "Assessing Genetic Risks"

 

LBNL implements novel transposon-mediated chromosome-sequencing system

 

GRAIL sequence-interpretation service provides Internet access at ORNL 

1994

Netscape Communications Corporation founded and releases Naviagator, the commerical version of NCSA's Mozilla

 

Gene Logic is formed in Maryland

 

The PRINTS database of protein motifs is published by Attwood and Beck

 

Oxford Molecular Group acquires IntelliGenetics

 

EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute , Hinxton, UK

 

Genetic-mapping 5-year goal achieved 1 year ahead of schedule

 

Completion of second-generation DNA clone libraries representing each human chromosome by LLNL and LBNL 

1995

The Haemophilus influenzea genome (18) is sequenced

 

LANL and LLNL announce high-resolution physical maps of chromosome 16 and chromosome 19, respectively

 

The Mycoplasma genitalium genome is sequenced

 

Moderate-resolution maps of chromosomes 3, 11, 12, and 22 maps published

 

Physical map with over 15,000 STS markers published

 

First (nonviral) whole genome sequenced (for the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae)

 

Sequence of smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium, completed; provides a model of the minimum number of genes needed for independent existence 

1996

The genome for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeadt, 121 Mb) is sequenced

 

The prosite database is reported by Bairoch, etal

 

Methanococcus jannaschii genome sequenced; confirms existence of third major branch of life on earth

 

DOE initiates 6 pilot projects on BAC end sequencing

 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) genome sequence completed by international consortium

 

Affymetrix produces the first commerical DNA chips

 

Sequence of the human T-cell receptor region completed 

1997

The genome for Ecoli (47 Mbp) is published

 

Oxford Molecualr Group acquires the Genetics Computer Group

 

LION bioscience AG founded as an intergrated genomics company with strong focus on bioinformatics The company is built from IP out of the European Molecualr Biology Laboratory (EMBL), the European Bioinformtics Institute (EBI), the GErman Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and the University of Heidelberg

 

paradigm Genetics Inc, a company focussed on the application of genomic technologies to enhance worldwide food and fiber production, is founded in Research Triangle Park, NC

 

deCode genetics publishes a paper that described the location of the FET1 gene, which is responsible for familial essential tremor, on chromosome 13 (Nature Genetics)

 

NIH NCHGR becomes National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)

 

Second large-scale sequencing strategy meeting held in Bermuda

 

High-resolution physical maps of chromosomes X and 7 completed

 

DOE-NIH Task Force on Genetic Testing releases final report and recommendations

 

DOE forms Joint Genome Institute for implementing high-throughput activities at DOE human genome centers, initially in sequencing and functional genomics 

1998

The genomes for Caenorhabitis elegans and baker's yeast are published

 

The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics is established as a non-profit foundation

 

Craig Venter forms Celera in Rockville, Maryland

 

PE Informatics was formed as a center of Excellence within PE Biosystems This center brings together and leverges the complementary expertise of PE Nelson and Molecualr Informatics, to further complement the genetic instrumention expertise of Applied Biosystems

 

Inpharmatica, a new Genomics and Bioinformatics company, is established by University College London, the Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, five leading scientists from major British academic centres and Unibio Limited

 

GeneFormatics, a company dedicated to the analysis and predication of protein structure and function, is formed in San Diego

 

Molecualr Simulations Inc is acquired by Pharmacopeia 

1999

deCode genetics maps the gene linked to pre-eclampsia as a locus on chromosome 2p13

 

First Human Chromosome Completely Sequenced! On December 1, researchers in the Human Genome Project announced the complete sequencing of the DNA making up human chromosome 22

 

Joint Genome Institute sequencing facility opens in Walnut Creek, CA

 

Major Drug Firms Create Public SNP Consortium

 

HGP advances goal for obtaining a draft sequence of the entire human genome from 2001 to 2000 

2000

The genome for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (63 Mbp) is published

 

The Athaliana genome (100 Mb) is secquenced

 

The Dmelanogaster genome (180 Mb) is sequenced

 

Pharmacopeia acquires Oxoford Molecular Group

 

HGP leaders and President Clinton announce the completion of a "working draft" DNA sequence of the human genome

 

International research consortium publishes chromosome 21 genome, the smallest human chromosome and the second to be completely sequenced

 

DOE researchers announce completion of chromosomes 5, 16, and 19 draft sequence

 

International collaborators publish genome of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 

2001

The huam genome (3,000 Mbp) is published

 

Human Chromosome 20 Finished - Chromosome 20 is the third chromosome completely sequenced to the high quality specified by the Human Genome Project 

2002

Structural Bioinformatics and GeneFormatics merge

 

An international sequencing consortium published the full genome sequence of the common house mouse (25 Gb) Whitehead Institute researcher Kerstin Lindblad-Toh is the lead author on the paper; her institution lead the project and contributed about half of the sequence Washington University School of Medicine delivered about 30 percent of the sequence, and created the mouse BAC-based physical map The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in the UK was the third major partner Other institutes in the International Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium included the University of California at Santa Cruz, the Institute for Systems Biology, and the University of Geneva

 

Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium publishes its draft sequence of mouse genome in the December 5, 2002, issue of Nature

 

International consortium led by the DOE Joint Genome Institute publishes draft sequence of Fugu rubripes 

2003

Human Genome Project Completion, April 2003

 

Human Chromosome 14 Finished - Chromosome 14 is the fourth chromosome to be completely sequenced 

2004

The draft genome sequence of the brown Norway laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus, was completed by the Rat Genome Sequencing project Consortium