Bioinformatics Time Line


Pauling and Corey propose the structure for the alpha-helix and beta-sheet


Watson & Crick propose the double helix model for DNA based x-ray data obtained by Franklin & Wilkins


Perutz's group develop heavy atom methods to solve the phase problem in protein crystallography


The sequence of the first protein to be analysed, bovine insulin, is announed by FSanger


The first integrated circuit is constructed by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments


The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is formed in the US 


Pauling's theory of molecular evolution 


Margaret Dayhoff's Atlas of Protein Sequences 


Packet-switching network protocols are presented to ARPA 


The ARPANET is created by linking computers at Stanford, UCSB, The University of Utah and UCLA 


The details of the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm for sequence comparison are published 


Ray Tomlinson (BBN) invents the email program 


The first recombinant DNA molecule is created by Paul Berg and his group 


The Brookhaven Protein DataBank is announeced (ActaCrystB,1973,29:1764) Robert Metcalfe receives his PhD from Harvard University His thesis describes Ethernet 


Vint Cerf and Robert Khan develop the concept of connecting networks of computers into an "internet" and develop the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)


Microsoft Corporation is founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen 


Two-dimensional electrophoresis, where separation of proteins on SDS polyacrylamide gel is combined with separation according to isoelectric points, is announced by P H O'Farrell


The Unix-To-Unix Copy Protocol (UUCP) is developed at Bell Labs


E M Southern published the experimental details for the Southern Blot technique of specific sequences of DNA


The full description of the Brookhaven PDB (http://wwwpdbbnlgov) is published


The first Usenet connection is established between Duke and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis and Steve Bellovin 


The first Usenet connection is established between Duke and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill by Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis and Steve Bellovin 


The first complete gene sequence for an organism (FX174) is published The gene consists of 5,386 base pairs which code nine proteins


WŁthrich et al publish paper detailing the use of multi-dimensional NMR for protein structure determination


The Smith-Waterman algorithm for sequence alignment is published


IBM introduces its Personal Computer to the market 


The concept of a sequence motif ( Doolittle ) 


Genetics Computer Group (GCG) created as a part of the University of Wisconsin of Wisconsin Biotechnology Center The company's primary product is The Wisconsin Suite of molecular biology tools 


GenBank Release 3 made public 


The Compact Disk (CD) is launched Name servers are developed at the University of Wisconsin 


Sequence database searching algorithm ( Wilbur-Lipman ) 


LANL (Los Alamos National Laboratory) and LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) begin production of DNA clone (cosmid) libraries representing single chromosomes


DNA analysis becomes viable with the discovery of Polymerase Chain Reaction It allows small samples of DNA to be multiplied to produce a large enough sample to analyse 


Jon Postel's Domain Name System (DNS) is placed on-line


The Macintosh is announced by Apple Computer 


The FASTP/FASTN algorithm is published


Robert Sinsheimer holds meeting on human genome sequencing at University of California, Santa Cruz


At OHER, Charles DeLisi and David A Smith commission the first Santa Fe conference to assess the feasibility of a Human Genome Initiative 


Following the Santa Fe conference, DOE OHER announces Human Genome Initiative With $53 million, pilot projects begin at DOE national laboratories to develop critical resources and technologies


The term "Genomics" appeared for the first time to describe the scientific discipline of mapping, sequencing, and analyzing genes The term was coined by Thomas Roderick as a name for the new journal


Amoco Technology Corporation acquires IntelliGenetics 


The SWISS-PROT database is created by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)


The PCR reaction is described by Kary Mullis and co-workers 


The use of yeast artifical chromosomes (YAC) is described


The physical map of e coli is published 


Perl (Practical Extraction Report Language) is released by Larry Wall


Congressionally chartered DOE advisory committee, HERAC, recommends a 15-year, multidisciplinary, scientific, and technological undertaking to map and sequence the human genome DOE designates multidisciplinary human genome centers


NIH NIGMS begins funding of genome projects 


National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) created at NIH/NLM


EMBnet network for database distribution


The Human Genome Intiative is started (commission on Life Sciences, National Research council Mapping and sequencing the Human Genome, National Academy Press: washington, DC)


The FASTA algorith for sequence comparison is published by Pearson and Lupman


A new program, an Internet computer virus desined by a student, infects 6,000 military computers in the US


Reports by congressional OTA and NAS NRC committees recommend concerted genome research program


HUGO founded by scientists to coordinate efforts internationally


First annual Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory meeting on human genome mapping and sequencing


DOE and NIH sign MOU outlining plans for cooperation on genome research


Telomere (chromosome end) sequence having implications for aging and cancer research is identified at LANL 


The genetics Computer Group (GCG) becomes a privatae company 


Oxford Molceular Group,Ltd(OMG) founded, UK by Anthony Marchigton, David Ricketts, James Hiddleston, Anthony Rees, and WGraham Richards Primary products: Anaconds, Asp, Cameleon and others (molecular modeling, drug design, protein design)


DNA STSs recommended to correlate diverse types of DNA clones


DOE and NIH establish Joint ELSI Working Group 


The BLAST program (Altschul,etal) is implemented


Molecular applications group is founded in California by Michael Levitt and Chris Lee Their primary products are Look and SegMod which are used for molecular modeling and protein deisign


InforMax is founded in Bethesda, MD The company's products address sequence analysis, database and data management, searching, publication graphics, clone construction, mapping and primer design


DOE and NIH present joint 5-year US HGP plan to Congress The 15-year project formally begins


Projects begun to mark gene sites on chromosome maps as sites of mRNA expression


Research and development begun for efficient production of more stable, large-insert BACs 


The research institute in Geneva (CERN) announces the creation of the protocols which make -up the World Wide Web


The creation and use of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is described


Incyte Pharmaceuticals, a genomics company headquartered in Palo Alto California, is formed


Myriad Genetics, Inc is founded in Utah The company's goal is to lead in the discovery of major common human disease genes and their related pathways The company has discovered and sequenced, with its academic collaborators, the following major genes: BRCA1, BRACA1 , CHD1, MMAC1, MMSC1, MMSC2, CtIP, p16, p19 and MTS2 


Low-resolution genetic linkage map of entire human genome published


Guidelines for data release and resource sharing announced by DOE and NIH 


Sanger Centre , Hinxton, UK


CuraGen Corporation is formed in New Haven, CT


Affymetrix begins independent operations in Santa Clara, California


International IMAGE Consortium established to coordinate efficient mapping and sequencing of gene-representing cDNAs


DOE-NIH ELSI Working Group's Task Force on Genetic and Insurance Information releases recommendations


DOE and NIH revise 5-year goals


IOM releases US HGP-funded report, "Assessing Genetic Risks"


LBNL implements novel transposon-mediated chromosome-sequencing system


GRAIL sequence-interpretation service provides Internet access at ORNL 


Netscape Communications Corporation founded and releases Naviagator, the commerical version of NCSA's Mozilla


Gene Logic is formed in Maryland


The PRINTS database of protein motifs is published by Attwood and Beck


Oxford Molecular Group acquires IntelliGenetics


EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute , Hinxton, UK


Genetic-mapping 5-year goal achieved 1 year ahead of schedule


Completion of second-generation DNA clone libraries representing each human chromosome by LLNL and LBNL 


The Haemophilus influenzea genome (18) is sequenced


LANL and LLNL announce high-resolution physical maps of chromosome 16 and chromosome 19, respectively


The Mycoplasma genitalium genome is sequenced


Moderate-resolution maps of chromosomes 3, 11, 12, and 22 maps published


Physical map with over 15,000 STS markers published


First (nonviral) whole genome sequenced (for the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae)


Sequence of smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium, completed; provides a model of the minimum number of genes needed for independent existence 


The genome for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeadt, 121 Mb) is sequenced


The prosite database is reported by Bairoch, etal


Methanococcus jannaschii genome sequenced; confirms existence of third major branch of life on earth


DOE initiates 6 pilot projects on BAC end sequencing


Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) genome sequence completed by international consortium


Affymetrix produces the first commerical DNA chips


Sequence of the human T-cell receptor region completed 


The genome for Ecoli (47 Mbp) is published


Oxford Molecualr Group acquires the Genetics Computer Group


LION bioscience AG founded as an intergrated genomics company with strong focus on bioinformatics The company is built from IP out of the European Molecualr Biology Laboratory (EMBL), the European Bioinformtics Institute (EBI), the GErman Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and the University of Heidelberg


paradigm Genetics Inc, a company focussed on the application of genomic technologies to enhance worldwide food and fiber production, is founded in Research Triangle Park, NC


deCode genetics publishes a paper that described the location of the FET1 gene, which is responsible for familial essential tremor, on chromosome 13 (Nature Genetics)


NIH NCHGR becomes National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)


Second large-scale sequencing strategy meeting held in Bermuda


High-resolution physical maps of chromosomes X and 7 completed


DOE-NIH Task Force on Genetic Testing releases final report and recommendations


DOE forms Joint Genome Institute for implementing high-throughput activities at DOE human genome centers, initially in sequencing and functional genomics 


The genomes for Caenorhabitis elegans and baker's yeast are published


The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics is established as a non-profit foundation


Craig Venter forms Celera in Rockville, Maryland


PE Informatics was formed as a center of Excellence within PE Biosystems This center brings together and leverges the complementary expertise of PE Nelson and Molecualr Informatics, to further complement the genetic instrumention expertise of Applied Biosystems


Inpharmatica, a new Genomics and Bioinformatics company, is established by University College London, the Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, five leading scientists from major British academic centres and Unibio Limited


GeneFormatics, a company dedicated to the analysis and predication of protein structure and function, is formed in San Diego


Molecualr Simulations Inc is acquired by Pharmacopeia 


deCode genetics maps the gene linked to pre-eclampsia as a locus on chromosome 2p13


First Human Chromosome Completely Sequenced! On December 1, researchers in the Human Genome Project announced the complete sequencing of the DNA making up human chromosome 22


Joint Genome Institute sequencing facility opens in Walnut Creek, CA


Major Drug Firms Create Public SNP Consortium


HGP advances goal for obtaining a draft sequence of the entire human genome from 2001 to 2000 


The genome for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (63 Mbp) is published


The Athaliana genome (100 Mb) is secquenced


The Dmelanogaster genome (180 Mb) is sequenced


Pharmacopeia acquires Oxoford Molecular Group


HGP leaders and President Clinton announce the completion of a "working draft" DNA sequence of the human genome


International research consortium publishes chromosome 21 genome, the smallest human chromosome and the second to be completely sequenced


DOE researchers announce completion of chromosomes 5, 16, and 19 draft sequence


International collaborators publish genome of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster 


The huam genome (3,000 Mbp) is published


Human Chromosome 20 Finished - Chromosome 20 is the third chromosome completely sequenced to the high quality specified by the Human Genome Project 


Structural Bioinformatics and GeneFormatics merge


An international sequencing consortium published the full genome sequence of the common house mouse (25 Gb) Whitehead Institute researcher Kerstin Lindblad-Toh is the lead author on the paper; her institution lead the project and contributed about half of the sequence Washington University School of Medicine delivered about 30 percent of the sequence, and created the mouse BAC-based physical map The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in the UK was the third major partner Other institutes in the International Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium included the University of California at Santa Cruz, the Institute for Systems Biology, and the University of Geneva


Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium publishes its draft sequence of mouse genome in the December 5, 2002, issue of Nature


International consortium led by the DOE Joint Genome Institute publishes draft sequence of Fugu rubripes 


Human Genome Project Completion, April 2003


Human Chromosome 14 Finished - Chromosome 14 is the fourth chromosome to be completely sequenced 


The draft genome sequence of the brown Norway laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus, was completed by the Rat Genome Sequencing project Consortium