Biotechnology Time Line

4000 BC

Egyptians use yeast to make leavened bread and wine

 

 

1663

Cells are first described by Hooke

1675

Leeuwenhoek discovers bacteria

1683

Microscope is Invented

1830

Proteins are discovered

1855

The Escherichia coli bacterium is discovered

1859

Charles Darwin publishes the theory of evolution by natural selection

1861

Pasteurization is invented by Louis Pasteur

1863

Mendel discovers that traits were transmitted from parents to progeny by discrete, independent units, later called genes

1869

Miescher discovers DNA in the sperm of trout

1877

A technique for staining and identifying bacteria is developed by Koch

1878

The first centrifuge is developed by Laval

1879

Fleming discovers chromatin, the rod-like structures inside the cell nucleus that later came to be called chromosomes

1900

Hugo DeVries, Carl Coreens and Eric Von Tschermak independently rediscovers Mendel's work

1905

Clarence McClung shows in human that female have two X chromosomes and males have one X and one Y

1906

The term genetics is introduced

1919

The word "Biotechnology" is first used by Karl ereky (a Hungarian agricultural engineer)

1928

Penicillin discovered as an antibiotic: Alexander Fleming

1931

Ernst Ruska invented the electron microscope

1932

Frits Zernike invented the phase-contrast microscope

1938

The term molecular biology is coined

1941

The term genetic engineering is first used, by Danish

Beadle and Tatum gave one gene one enzyme theory

1942

The electron microscope is used to identify and characterize a bacteriophage

1944

Avery at al showed transforming property of DNA

McClintock discovers that gene can jump around chromosome is termed jumping genes

1949

Pauling shows that sickle cell anemia is a "molecular disease" resulting from a mutation in the protein molecule hemoglobin

1952

Hershey and Chase showed Transduction in it Virus infect Bacteria by inserting its DNA

1953

Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins carry out X-ray crystallography studies of DNA

James Watson and Francis Crick's manuscript describing the double helical structure of DNA

1955

An enzyme involved in the synthesis of a nucleic acid is isolated for the first time

Joe Hin Tjio defined exact number of Human Chromosome is 46

1956

Kornberg discovers the enzyme DNA polymerase I

1958

Meselson and Stahl demonstrated that DNA replication is semi conservative

DNA is made in a test tube for the first time

Sickle cell anemia is shown to occur due to a change of a single amino acid

1960

Messenger RNA is discovered

1961

USDA registers first biopesticide: Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt

1966

Genetic Code cracked

1968

Restriction enzyme recognized in Bacteria

1972

Recombinant DNA molecule produced

1975

Colony hybridization and Southern blotting are developed for detecting specific DNA sequences

The first monoclonal antibodies are produced

1976

Yeast genes are expressed in E coli bacteria

1977

Introns in eukaryotic genes discovered

1978

North Carolina scientists Hutchinson and Edgell show it is possible to introduce specific mutations at specific sites in a DNA molecule

1980

The US Supreme Court, in the landmark case Diamond v Chakrabarty, approves the principle of patenting genetically engineered life forms

1981

Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer invented the scanning tunneling microscope that gives three-dimensional images of objects down to the atomic level

1982

First genetically engineered product: human insulin

1983

The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique is invented

1984

The DNA fingerprinting technique is developed

1987

First Genetic Map of Human Chromosome created based on RFLP

Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) developed that can carry large segment of DNA

1989

Sequence Tagged Site and Microsatellite are used as Genetic Marker

1990

Human Genome Project launched

Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) created

1995

The first full gene sequence of a living organism other than a virus is completed for the bacterium Hemophilus influenzae

1997

Ian Wilmut and his team at the Roslin Institute produced Dolly (sheep)

1998

The first complete animal genome for the elegans worm is sequenced

A rough draft of the human genome map is produced, showing the locations of more than 30,000 genes

James Thomson at Wisconsin and John Gearhart in develop a technique for culturing embryonic stem cells

2000

The human genome is completed

First entire plant genome, Arabidopsis thaliana, is sequenced

The Genome Sequence completed of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster

2001

The sequence of the human genome is published in Science and Nature

2005

Rice genome is sequenced