Cell biology Notes

Cell Biology

The Cell origins, Basic, structural organization of the Cell, Eukaryotic cell, Plant cell and Animal Cell,

             Cell hierarchy, Cell Elemental Composition, Relative Sizes of Biological Objects, cellular organization,

            Characteristics of Procaryotic & Eucaryotic cells, Protoplasm = Cytoplasm + Nucleus, The Extracellular Matrix

Cell wall Structures, Function, Biogenesis Growth

Plasma Membrane structure and composition, function, Fluid Mosaic Model, membrane properties,

            Membrane proteins structures, Domains, Glycoproteins, Multi-membrane-spanning proteins,

            sites for ATPases, ion carriers, channels & pumps, receptors, Biological membranes and Transport,

            transport in and out of cell, Membrane transport mechanisms, Diffusion, Facilitated diffusion, Active transport,

            Uniport, Symport, The Glucose-Na+ Transport System

            Membrane Receptors, Growth Factor Receptors, Transmembrane signal transduction

            G Protein Receptors epinephrine Cytoplasmic signal transduction Signalling cascades

Plasmodesmata structure, role in movement of molecules and macromolecular comparison with gap junction

Chloroplast structure, genome organization, gene expression

Mitochondria - structure, genome organization, ETC & Chemiosmosis

Plant vacuole tonoplast membrane, transporter as storage organelle, comparison with gap junction

Nucleus - structure, nuclear pores, nucleosome organization, nucleolus

Chromatin organization- Chromosome structure and packaging of DNA, molecular

organization of cetromere and telomere, nucleolus and ribosomal RNA genes

euchromatin and heterochromatin, karyotype analysis, banding patterns, karyotype evolution

nuclear basis of chromosome pairing, chromosome aberration

Specialized types of chromosomes

Polytene, Lampbrush B-chromosomes

Sex chromosomes and polyploidy

Ribosome - Ribosome Structure, Prokaryotic 70s, Eukaryotic 80s

Other Cell Organelles - Structure and function of organelles, structure and function of microtubules, Microfilaments,

Microbodies, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Centrioles, Basal Bodies,

Structure and function of the cytoskeleton

Plastids - 1) Chromoplasts (Colored) e.g.. Chloroplasts, Pheoplasts, Rhoplasts

                2) Leucoplasts (Colorless) found in embryo & root of plants

Cell division- binary fission and mitosis, Meiosis, Mitosis, meiosis and sexual reproduction,

Cell movement - Cilia & Flagella

The Cell Cycle- Cell Cycle control mechanism, Regulation of the Cell Cycle, role of cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases,

retinoblastoma and E2F proteins cytokinesis and cell plate formation,

Apoptosis- Programmed Cell Death

Parthenogenesis -

Cell Differentiation

Cell Signaling Receptors, Signal Responses I, Signal Responses II, Kinds of Signals,

Bacterial Cell Signaling, Steroid Hormones, Second Messengers, G-proteins,

Protein Kinase Cascades, Signaling Events, Gap Junctions, Cancer Therapy,

            Signaling Pathway Database, Spad, Drastic, Genet, Dip, Csndb, Stcdb,  Pfbp

            Introduction to Transpath, Introduction to Kegg Regulatory Pathways

Signal Transduction Signal Transduction, Signal transduction 2, Signal Transduction Mechanism,

            Classifications of Signal Transducing Receptors, Intra & Inter Cellular Signaling Cascades, Signal Amplification,

            Tyrosine Kinase, Ser/Thr-Protein Kinases, Protein Kinase C, Map Kinase, Phospholipases, Phosphatidylinositol,

            Cyclic Amp, G-Protein Coupled Receptors, Intracellular Receptors and Gene Expression

Introduction to modeling cellular Networks, Signal Transduction Networks, Signal Transduction Network Models,

            Lambda Phase Development, Bacterial Chemotaxis, Quorum Sensing, and Cell Cycle,

            Pattern Formation in Development, Computer Modeling of Signal transduction Pathway,

            Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, Neurodegenerative Syndromes,

Techniques in Cell Biology- Immunotechnoques, insitu hybridization, FISH, GISH, confocal microscopy, fixatation, staining,


Cell Physiology gas exchange,

Tumor Biology Oncogenes and Cancer, Tumor Suppressors and Cancer