Immunology Time Line

1798 Edward Jenner, Smallpox vaccination
1862 Ernst Haeckel, Recognition of phagocytosis
1877 Paul Erlich, recognition of mast cells
1879 Louis Pasteur, Attenuated chicken cholera vaccine development
1883 Elie Metchnikoff Cellular theory of vaccination
1885 Louis Pasteur, Rabies vaccination development
1888 George Nuttall, Bactericidal action of blood
1888 Pierre Roux & Alexandre Yersin, Bacterial toxins
1891 Robert Koch, Delayed type hypersensitivity
1894 Richard Pfeiffer, Bacteriolysis
1895  Jules Bordet, Complement and antibody activity in bacteriolysis
1900 Paul Erlich, Antibody formation theory
1901 Karl Landsteiner, A, B and O blood groupings
1901-8  Carl Jensen & Leo Loeb, Transplantable tumors
1902 Paul Portier & Charles Richet, Anaphylaxis
1903 Almroth Wright & Stewart Douglas, Opsonization reactions
1906 Clemens von Pirquet, coined the word allergy
1907 Svante Arrhenius, coined the term immunochemistry
1910 Emil von Dungern, & Ludwik Hirszfeld, Inheritance of ABO blood groups
1910 Peyton Rous, Viral immunology theory
1914 Clarence Little, Genetics theory of tumor transplantation
1915-20  Leonell Strong & Clarence Little, Inbred mouse strains
1917 Karl Landsteiner, Haptens
1921  Carl Prausnitz & Heinz Kustner, Cutaneous reactions
1924  L Aschoff, Reticuloendothelial system
1926 Lloyd Felton & GH Bailey, Isolation of pure antibody preparation
1934-8  John Marrack, Antigen-antibody binding hypothesis
1936 Peter Gorer, Identification of the H-2 antigen in mice
1940 Karl Lansteiner & Alexander Weiner, Identification of the Rh antigens
1941 Albert Coons, Immunofluorescence technique
1942 Jules Freund & Katherine McDermott, Adjuvants
1942 Karl Landsteiner & Merill Chase, Cellular transfer of sensitivity in guinea pigs (anaphylaxis)
1944 Peter Medwar, Immunological hypothesis of allograft rejection
1948 Astrid Fagraeus, Demonstration of antibody production in plasma B cells
1948 George Snell, Congenic mouse lines
1949 Macfarlane Burnet & Frank Fenner, Immunological tolerance hypothesis
1950  Richard Gershon and K Kondo, Discovery of suppressor T cells
1952 Ogden and Bruton, discovery of agammagobulinemia (antibody immunodeficiency)
1953 James Riley & Geoffrey West, Discovery of histamine in mast cells
1953 Morton Simonsen and WJ Dempster, Graft-versus-host reaction
1953 Rupert Billingham, Leslie Brent, Peter Medwar, & Milan Hasek, Immunological tolerance hypothesis
1955-1959  Niels Jerne, David Talmage, Macfarlane Burnet, Clonal selection theory
1957 Alick Isaacs & Jean Lindemann, Discovery of interferon (cytokine)
1957 Ernest Witebsky et al., Induction of autoimmunity in animals
1958-62  Jean Dausset et al., Human leukocyte antigens
1959 James Gowans, Lymphocyte circulation
1959-62  Rodney Porter et al., Discovery of antibody structure
1961-62  Jaques Miller et al., Discovery of thymus involvement in cellular immunity
1961-62 Noel Warner et al., Distinction of cellular and humoral immune responses
1963 Jaques Oudin et al., antibody idiotypes
1964-8  Anthony Davis et al., T and B cell cooperation in immune response
1965 Thomas Tomasi et al., Secretory immunoglobulin antibodies
1967 Kimishige Ishizaka et al., Identification of IgE as the reaginic antibody
1971 Donald Bailey, Recombinent inbred mouse strains
1974 Rolf Zinkernagel & Peter Doherty, T-cell restriction to MHC
1975 Kohler and Milstein, Monoclonal antibodies used in genetic analysis
1984 Robert Good, Failed treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID, David the bubble boy) by bone marrow grafting.
1985 Tonegawa, Hood et al., Identification of immunoglobulin genes
1985-7  Leroy Hood et al., Identification of genes for the T cell receptor
1985- onwards Rapid identification of genes for immune cells, antibodies, cytokines and other immunological structures.
1990 NIH team, Gene therapy for SCID using cultured T cells.
1990 Yamamoto et al., Molecular differences between the genes for blood groups O and A and between those for A and B
1993 NIH team, Treatment of SCID using genetically altered umbilical cord cells.
1994 Polly Matzinger, "Danger" model of immunological tolerance
1995 Shimon Sakaguchi, Regulatory T-cell
1996-98 Identification of Toll like receptor
2001 Discovery of FOXP3- the gene directing regulatory T cell development
2005 Ian Frazer, Development of Human papillomavirus vaccine